"Resilience refers to the process of overcoming the negative effects of risk exposure, coping successfully with traumatic experiences, and avoiding the negative trajectories associated with risks." [1]

"Resilience theorists generally agree that the presence of one or more protective factors can reduce the effects of exposure to adversity. The more protective factors (or “assets”) available, the more resilient a young person will be."[2]



  • The term resilience has been used to label three different types of phenomena:
    • individuals who have experienced traumatic events but have been able to recover well;
    • persons who belong to high-risk groups, but who have more favorable outcomes than expected
    • persons who show positive adaptation despite life stressors (Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990).[3]

  1. ^ Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, (26), 399-419. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/~whw2380/438 Spring
  2. ^ Toomey, A., Brennan, E. M., & Friesen, B. (n.d.). Resilience theory as a framework for teaching human development within hbse. Retrieved from http://www.rtc.pdx.edu/PDF/pbResilienceTheory.pdf
  3. ^ Resilience theory. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mypeer.org.au/planning/what-are-peer-based-programs/theory/resilience-theory/